Astronaut badge

October 10, 2022

Nach der Definition der internationalen Luftfahrtverbands (Fédération Aéronautique Internationale) ist ein Astronaut, wer bei einer Mission eine Flughöhe von mehr als 100 Kilometern erreicht hat. Diese Höhengrenze – auch Kármán-Linie genannt – dient sowohl der NASA als auch der US-Bundesluftfahrtbehörde (Federal Aviation Administration) als Kriterium.

Bei den US-Streitkräften gelten andere Voraussetzungen: Um ein militärisches Astronaut Badge zu erhalten, muss ein Soldat bereits das Fliegerabzeichen der US-Streitkräfte (das Aircrew Badge) besitzen, das Offizieren nach Ende der Flugschule verliehen wird, und zusätzlich an einem Raumflug in mehr als 50 Meilen (80 Kilometern) Höhe über dem Meeresspiegel teilgenommen haben.

Abzeichen der NASA[Bearbeiten]

NASA-Abzeichen für zivile Astronauten

Die ersten US-Astronauten waren Mitglieder der Streitkräfte und trugen daher die entsprechenden militärischen Astronaut Badges. Mit der Auswahl der ersten zivilen Astronautenanwärter wurde für sie ein eigenes Abzeichen geschaffen. Dieses ist besonders auf Fotos von Space-Shuttle-Missionsspezialisten häufig zu sehen, in der Regel auf dem Namensschild ihrer blauen Trainingsoveralls. Das Emblem zeigt goldene Flügel, dazwischen eine Sternschnuppe, die durch eine Ellipse (Symbol für eine Umlaufbahn) fliegt. Bis 2004 war dies in den USA das einzige zivile Abzeichen für Astronauten, da alle Männer und Frauen, denen es verliehen wurde, sich das Astronaut Badge durch einen Raumflug der NASA oder – im Fall von sieben Piloten – durch einen Raumflug mit dem Experimentalflugzeug North American X-15 der United States Air Force verdient hatten.

Abzeichen der FAA[Bearbeiten]

FAA-Abzeichen für zivile Astronauten

2004 gelang den Testpiloten Michael Melvill und Brian Binnie der erste Raumflug ohne Beteiligung der US-Regierung, als sie an Bord des raketengetriebenen Experimentalflugzeuges SpaceShipOne von Scaled Composites mehrere suborbitale Flüge durchführten. Die Federal Aviation Administration verleiht seither Zivilpiloten, die einen erfolgreichen Raumflug durchgeführt haben, ebenfalls ein Astronautenabzeichen als Commercial Astronaut (etwa: gewerbsmäßiger Astronaut). Melvill und Binnie sind bisher die einzigen Träger dieses Abzeichens.

Militärische Abzeichen[Bearbeiten]

Das Army Astronaut Badge in seinen drei Abstufungen.

Für Mitglieder der US-Streitkräfte existieren eigene Astronautenabzeichen, die neben den beschriebenen Verwendungen auch als Tätigkeitsabzeichen an der Uniform getragen werden. Jede Teilstreitkraft gibt ihre eigene Version des Astronautenabzeichens heraus. Es besteht aus dem standardmäßigen Fliegerabzeichen (United States Aviator Badge) der Teilstreitkraft, auf dessen Wappenschild sich das Astronautenemblem befindet, eine Sternschnuppe, die durch eine Ellipse (Symbol für eine Umlaufbahn) fliegt. Die Abzeichen der United States Army und der US Air Force werden außerdem in drei Abstufungen verliehen. Das Senior Astronaut Badge zeichnet sich durch einen Stern oberhalb des Wappenschildes aus, das Master/Command Astronaut Badge durch einen Stern mit Lorbeerkranz.

Abzeichen der US Army[Bearbeiten]

Das am 17. Mai 1983 eingeführte Astronautenabzeichen der United States Army wird in den Abstufungen Army Astronaut, Senior Army Astronaut und Master Army Astronaut verliehen. Hat der Astronaut bisher noch kein Aircrew Badge erhalten, wird ihm zunächst dieses verliehen.

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